Agricultural Mechanization aims at three areas to make up for weaknesses
According to the new data of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas * *, at present, the comprehensive mechanization rate of cultivation and harvest of China's main crops has exceeded 70%, and the production of the three main grains has basically realized mechanization, but the mechanization development among different industries and regions of agriculture is still very uneven. Experts said that in the future, we should aim at the shortcomings in the three major fields of facility agriculture, hilly and mountainous areas and animal husbandry, and promote the extension of agricultural mechanization from planting to animal husbandry and facility agriculture, and from plain areas to hilly and mountainous areas.
The autumn harvest is in full swing all over the country, and all kinds of agricultural machinery are galloping in the vast fields. However, there are still many places and links that rely on human and animal resources. According to the * * new data of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas, at present, the comprehensive mechanization rate of cultivation and income of China's main crops has exceeded 70%, and the production of three main grains has basically realized mechanization, but the mechanization development among different industries and regions of agriculture is still very uneven: the mechanization rate of fruits, vegetables, tea and other crops is less than 40%, and the mechanization rate of animal husbandry, fishery and facility agriculture is only 30% to 35%, There is a huge gap between hilly and mountainous areas and plain areas.
Luo Xiwen, academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering and honorary chairman of the China Agricultural machinery society, said that with the aggravation of the aging labor force, China's agriculture has maintained stable development and mechanization has played an important role. The development path of agricultural mechanization with Chinese characteristics characterized by government support and socialized service of agricultural machinery has become a model for developing countries. In the future, we should aim at the shortcomings in the three major fields of facility agriculture, hilly and mountainous areas and animal husbandry, and promote the extension of agricultural mechanization from planting to animal husbandry and facility agriculture, and from plain areas to hilly and mountainous areas.
Greenhouse facilities towards "fingertip agriculture"
China has broken the pattern of relying on open-air farming facilities, but there are also some large countries that rely on open-air farming facilities. Tu Zhiqiang, deputy head of the Agricultural Machinery Extension Station of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas, said that the mechanization level of facility agriculture is only 30%, less than half of the mechanization level of planting industry. Production is still dominated by labor, which is difficult to hire and expensive. Due to the difficult and expensive land use, many existing production facilities lack indoor space and are not convenient for mechanized operation.
Globally, facility agriculture in the Netherlands, Australia and other countries has basically realized mechanization, with high production efficiency and unit output rate, and is moving towards informatization. For example, the high yield of Tomato in Solar Greenhouse in China is about 22 kg / m2, which is only 43% of the average yield of Tomato in Greenhouse in the Netherlands. Affected by the operating environment and production scale, the insufficient development of Facility Agricultural Mechanization in China is very prominent: in the field of facility horticulture, there is a lack of equipment for seedling grafting, transplanting and harvesting, and the per capita labor productivity is low; In the field of facility aquaculture, mechanization in precision feeding, environmental regulation and layered fishing has developed slowly.
In recent years, all localities have made a lot of exploration by combining mechanization and intelligence of facility agriculture. Beijing xialicheng facility agriculture cooperative is one of the core bases of Beijing facility agriculture Internet of things demonstration project. Here, the intelligent control system of the Internet of things continuously monitors the outdoor temperature, humidity, wind speed and other indicators, and collects the environmental and biological information parameters in the greenhouse in real time. According to the staff, the network irrigation management system here can save 69% water, and the intelligent pesticide application system can save 15% to 20% of pesticides. The whole system can shorten the time from differentiation to budding of Chrysanthemum by 5 to 7 days, and increase the commercialization rate by 15 percentage points.
In Shouguang modern agricultural high-tech experimental demonstration base, the birthplace of winter warm greenhouse vegetables, an intelligent greenhouse covering an area of 120 mu is eye-catching. This was designed by Zhao Chunjiang, academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering and director of the National Agricultural Information Engineering Technology Research Center.
"Information has become an important element of intelligent agricultural production." Zhao Chunjiang believes that China's facility agriculture presents the characteristics of significantly enhanced informatization and significantly accelerated integrated development. It is necessary to promote the intellectualization of facilities and equipment and the socialization of production services while updating the facilities and greenhouses.
Solve the "difficulty in getting to the field" in Hilly and mountainous areas
The research team of the Agricultural Mechanization Management Department of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas found that the "difficulty in getting out of the field" of agricultural machinery is the main bottleneck in the development of Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas. On the one hand, the cultivated land conditions in Hilly and mountainous areas are poor, the terrain is complex, the fields are fine, many plots have many slopes, many ridges and irregular shapes, and most large and medium-sized agricultural machinery are difficult to pass and operate. On the other hand, there are many planting varieties, and the traditional planting modes such as interplanting and intercropping are common. The scale is small and scattered, the agricultural machinery and equipment required are diverse, and the research and development problems of machines and tools are many and complex, which discourages many R & D institutions and agricultural machinery enterprises.
Zhang Taolin, Vice Minister of agriculture and rural areas, said that China's Hilly and mountainous areas are mainly distributed in 19 provinces and more than 1400 counties and cities. For a long time, due to the limitation of natural conditions, the lack of tractor roads in many places, coupled with the complex agronomic cultivation mode and few applicable machines and tools, have seriously restricted the development of mechanization. In 2019, the comprehensive mechanization rate of crop cultivation and harvest in Hilly and mountainous areas was only 48%, 22 percentage points lower than the national average level. In the face of this short board, hilly areas carry out the transformation and construction of farmland "suitable for mechanization", so that the original "palm field" and "chicken nest land" have become a stage for agricultural machinery.
During the cold dew season, in Xinglong Village, Tianjiu Town, Dingnan County, Ganzhou City, Jiangxi Province, late rice is growing well. Long Xinhua, a large local grain grower, is inspecting and repairing agricultural machinery to prepare for the autumn harvest. The local government has carried out the "suitable mechanization" transformation of Hilly and mountainous areas to create conditions for the application of large and medium-sized agricultural machinery. According to the person in charge of the Agricultural Machinery Bureau of the county, up to now, the county has completed the declaration of central agricultural machinery subsidy funds of about 2.045 million yuan, an increase of 283.7% over last year, and subsidized 327 sets of agricultural machinery.
In recent years, the national public welfare industry (Agriculture) scientific research project has supported the research and demonstration of small agricultural machines and tools in Hilly and mountainous areas. In the major project of "intelligent agricultural machinery and equipment" in the national key R & D plan of the 13th five year plan, three projects such as "Research on key technologies and complete machine development of Hilly and mountainous tractors" have been established, and a number of machines and tools suitable for hilly and mountainous areas have been developed and produced one after another. The central government has allocated 57 billion yuan of subsidies for the purchase of agricultural machinery in 19 provinces, autonomous regions and cities concentrated in Hilly and mountainous areas, supporting farmers to purchase 20 million sets of machines and tools. The Ministry of agriculture and rural areas has organized the establishment of 98 whole process mechanization demonstration counties in Hilly and mountainous areas, and built a batch of demonstration villages in various places, which has promoted the development of Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas.
Animal husbandry pursues "human management equipment"
"At present, small and medium-sized farms account for more than 80% of livestock and poultry breeding, but the degree of mechanization is less than 30%. Among them, the mechanization level of pig breeding is about 30%, the mechanization level of layer and broiler breeding is about 40%, and the mechanization level of beef cattle and waterfowl is generally less than 30%. The degree of mechanization in waste collection and treatment, engineering epidemic prevention and planting and breeding cycle is generally low. " Yang Zhenhai, director of the animal husbandry and Veterinary Bureau of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas, said that promoting the accelerated development of livestock and poultry breeding means that animal husbandry should change from the traditional mode of "artificial feeding" to the modern mode of "human management equipment".
Taking live pigs as an example, most pig farms in China have poor facilities, lack of automatic environmental control equipment, and the feed conversion rate is more than 10% lower than that in developed countries. Since last year, the state has taken many measures to promote the recovery of pig production capacity. Some pig breeding enterprises have launched the "building pig raising" mode, * * give full play to the role of advanced facilities and equipment, and realize the efficient coordination of equipment such as intelligent feeding, air filtration and fecal pollution treatment. The land is only one tenth of that of ordinary pig farms, and the annual output of weaned piglets per sow is 28, 10 heads higher than the national average.
The reporter learned that with the development of animal husbandry mechanization, modern biotechnology, information technology and automatic control technology have been continuously applied. Through the animal identification and traceability system developed by radio frequency identification technology, it can track and monitor the feeding, transportation, slaughter and other links of livestock and poultry. Pigs wear electronic earrings and master their individual status; The cattle wear an electronic collar, which can locate the position of grazing cattle, monitor and analyze the growth cycle. Large enterprises integrate the Internet of things technology with animal husbandry machinery, automatically collect, summarize and analyze production data, and refine the whole process management of livestock and poultry production, which has become an intelligent label of animal husbandry.
Liu Changquan, director of the industrial economy Office of the rural Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said that the effective way to promote the mechanization of animal husbandry, especially the mechanization of small and medium-sized farmers, is to promote the socialization of agricultural machinery services to adapt to the appropriate scale operation of animal husbandry. Agricultural machinery socialized service organizations such as breeding forage preparation and supply, collection and treatment of livestock and poultry manure, and specialized engineering epidemic prevention should be regarded as the main force to promote the mechanization of large-scale breeding, and should be inclined in terms of capital and technology, so as to solve the problems that can not be done and can not be done well by each family.