Corn harvester is still in a period of development opportunities
According to the information of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas, in 2021 / 22, China's corn planting area reached 42670 thousand hectares (640 million mu), an increase of 1406 thousand hectares (21.09 million mu) over the previous year, an increase of 3.4%. In addition, during spring sowing this year, the soil moisture in most producing areas is better than that of last year. In addition, due to variety improvement, technological progress and other factors, it is expected that the per unit yield of corn will reach 6370 kg per hectare (425 kg per mu), an increase of 0.8% over the previous year, and the total output of corn will be 272 million tons, an increase of 4.3% over the previous year. This also indicates that the reduction and adjustment of domestic corn planting area from 2016 to 2020 has come to an end, and a new planting structure adjustment cycle is beginning.
Although the planting area has been adjusted, corn has the characteristics of wide planting area, strong climate adaptability, relatively easy field management, diverse uses and strong price preservation. The planting area has always ranked first among the four major grain crops in China and plays an irreplaceable key role in China's agricultural industry system. However, what is not synchronized with the first planting area is that the development of corn harvesters in China started relatively late and the degree of mechanization is low. Manual harvesting still exists in many regions. According to statistics, the yield of domestic corn harvesters is around 80%, and the non machine harvesting area is estimated to exceed 120 million mu. There is still a large space for the rigid demand of corn harvesting machinery.
The annual sales volume continues to grow for a long time
Compared with other crops, corn not only has the characteristics of high plant height, hard straw texture and high grain moisture content during harvest, but also has various agronomy, different planting plot sizes and various planting row spacing. It is relatively difficult to harvest corn by machine, which is a great test for the adaptability, reliability, peeling and threshing effect of operation machinery.
Data show that before the first World War, there were corn ear pickers driven by animal traction and tractor traction in foreign countries; In 1928, corn ear picking and bract peeling machine appeared; In 1930, a corn ear picking platform equipped on the grain combine harvester appeared. In the 1950s, the United States installed a threshing device on the corn picker to become a corn picker and thresher. Since the 1970s, it has been rapidly developed and widely used. At present, the production technology of foreign corn harvesters has been fully mature. In the United States, Germany, Ukraine, Russia and other countries, corn harvesting (including grain and straw silage) has realized all mechanized operations. Because most of its planting methods are planted once a year, the moisture content of corn grain at harvest is very low, and most countries adopt the harvesting method of corn ear picking and direct threshing.
In 1962, China successfully developed corn husker; In 1973, the corn ear picker and corn ear peeler were developed and produced; In the 1990s, the basic research and resource accumulation of corn harvester were really completed. In 2004, the national agricultural machinery purchase subsidy policy began to be implemented. Driven by the subsidy policy, domestic agricultural machinery R & D and manufacturing enterprises have successively entered the field of corn harvesters, and the industrial development has entered a rapid development channel.
If the corn harvester market is divided into three stages, it can be divided into three development stages.
The first stage is the product and market cultivation stage before 2011.
This stage is the resource accumulation period of corn harvester, which has the disadvantages of relatively weak technical foundation, single product function and insufficient reliability. During this period, many models such as corn backpacker, wheat corn header interchanger and self-propelled machine exist at the same time, and the products are in the cultivation stage with low maturity.
The second stage, 2012-2014, is the market outbreak stage.
With the completion of product and market accumulation, in 2012, driven by favorable factors such as subsidy policies, rigid demand and the improvement of product maturity of two-line and three-line minicomputers, the corn machine market grew explosively, officially opening the door to the improvement of product performance and quality maturity of corn machines. The market sales increased year by year, and the market sales in 2014 was close to 80000 units, It has reached the peak of annual sales in recent 10 years.
The third stage, from 2015 to now, is the gradual normalization stage.
Since 2015, with the implementation of a series of policies such as national grain planting structure adjustment, supply side reform and subsidy policy fine-tuning, the domestic corn harvester market has entered a continuous decline channel, which once made it difficult for manufacturing enterprises in the industry. In 2017, the overall market sales fell to the bottom of the market in nearly seven years, and the growth trend has resumed since 2018, However, the growth rate has stabilized and the market has entered a mature stage of steady development.
According to the market situation since this year, combined with the unrelenting support of national subsidy policies for corn harvesters, the increase of corn planting area, the strong corn price and the improvement of animal husbandry industry, the sales of corn harvesters in 2021 may maintain a sustained growth momentum, with an increase of more than double digits, and the sales of 65000 units is a matter of great probability.
Market segmentation and intensified competition
According to the sales law, the sales of corn harvester market are mainly concentrated in July, August and September, which account for 60% of the annual shipments. Therefore, the sales of corn harvester is the highlight of the sales of agricultural machinery market in the second half of the year.
According to incomplete statistics, at present, there are more than 80 enterprises engaged in corn harvester manufacturing in China, which is much less than 145 at the peak. After years of development, the overall maturity of China's corn harvester products has been greatly improved, the localization of short board products has gradually achieved a breakthrough, and the contradiction between supply and demand has been alleviated. Especially for small and medium-sized products, the operational reliability and adaptability have made an essential leap. Now, all types of products manufactured in China covering corn harvest have been in large-scale, grain models Continuous breakthroughs have been made in straw and other models, which are effectively meeting the diversified product needs of users.
In line with the industrial distribution, the main selling areas of corn harvesters are concentrated in the main corn producing areas, namely heijiliao, Inner Mongolia and Huanghuaihai. At the same time, with the deepening of the national food security strategy, the corn planting area in Lianghu, Guangxi and other areas has increased year by year, and the demand for machine harvesters has also increased rapidly. In terms of regional proportion, Huanghuaihai region has always been the mainstream market of corn harvesters. Among the top sales regions, Huanghuaihai region occupies five regional markets including Shandong, Hebei, Henan, Shanxi and Anhui. As regions with early popularization and rapid promotion of corn mechanization, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Mongolia and Singapore have a high yield. Over the years, the main products sold in Northeast China are foreign brand mainframes such as John Deere, case, AGCO and Klass, and the competitiveness of domestic brand high-end models still needs to be further improved. In recent years, the state has issued special policies for the promotion of mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas, and the corn planting area and mechanization degree in two lakes, Guangxi and other places have been rapidly improved. Nationwide, there are obvious signs of saturation of corn harvesters in Shandong and Heilongjiang markets, and they are the first to enter the stock competition.
In terms of the proportion of sales models, in 2020, 4-line machines accounted for more than 60%, and 3-line and below models accounted for nearly 30%, and the trend of high-end and large-scale is obvious. On the whole, the main products sold in Huang Huai Hai and other regions are mainly medium-sized, and the large-scale operation areas in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia have an obvious trend. At the same time, the demand for small models in Hilly and mountainous areas is gradually increasing, and the corn harvester market shows the operation characteristics of segmentation. Not only that, the sales of stem and harvester models suitable for animal husbandry feed have increased sharply, and the grain direct harvester has also shown an upward momentum, which has attracted much attention.
From the perspective of the composition of manufacturing enterprises and resource system, small and medium-sized enterprises still occupy the mainstream, and most brands are concentrated on the medium and small models of corn harvesters. The product homogenization characteristics are obvious, which is bound to lead to the fierce competition for market share in many regions. In the final analysis, the market competition of corn harvester always focuses on the reliability and applicability of products. With the progress and deepening of market segmentation, the market competition of corn harvester will become more and more intense.
It is not difficult to judge that the fierce competition in the corn harvester market this year is still unabated. For all enterprises, it is very important to find their own advantage positioning in the market competition system and establish exclusive advantageous products, advantageous regions, advantageous customers and advantageous brand influence.
Grain direct harvester ushers in the maximum opportunity period
This year, the general office of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas and the general office of the Ministry of Finance issued the guiding opinions on the implementation of subsidies for the purchase of agricultural machinery from 2021 to 2023, which clearly pointed out that "in terms of subsidy standards, we should strive to 'increase and decrease', increase the amount of subsidies for some key subsidized machines and tools, and increase the estimated proportion from 30% to 35%, including rice transplanter (throwing) seedling machine, heavy no till planter Machines and tools required for weak links of grain production such as corn grain harvesters, new machines and tools urgently needed for the development of characteristic industries in Hilly and mountainous areas, as well as intelligent, duplex and high-end products. " Help the corn grain harvest process from the national policy level.
The survey shows that in most areas of China, the grain moisture content of corn is 25% - 35%, or even higher, and it is not suitable for direct threshing during harvest, so the method of segmented harvest is generally adopted. In the first stage, harvest, that is, directly collect the corn ears with bracts or peeled and straw after mechanical ear picking; The second stage is threshing, in which the corn ears are dried in the air in the field or field and then threshed. In the United States, Germany and other countries with a high degree of mechanization, corn harvesting (including grain and straw silage) has realized all mechanized operations. Therefore, the promotion of corn direct harvester in China must be carried out simultaneously with the improvement of corn varieties.
In terms of the difficulty of corn harvester, it is more difficult to harvest grain directly than picking ears, but the harvest efficiency is also higher. When the grain direct harvest technology is mature, the operation loss will be less, but the grain direct harvester is not suitable for harvesting corn with high water content. According to the current situation of maize planting in China, the direct harvest of maize seeds is more in line with the operation needs of the spring sowing maize area in the north and the Irrigated Maize Area in the northwest. The water content of Maize in these areas is relatively low when it is mature and planted continuously, which can effectively give full play to the industrial advantages of direct harvest models. If we want to realize the direct grain harvest in the summer sowing corn area of Huang Huai Hai, we must complete the seed selection and cultivation of planting varieties, so as to reduce the water content of corn at maturity, so as to meet the appropriate direct grain harvest standard. It is gratifying that, at present, China's Corn Variety cultivation has achieved remarkable results, and the basic conditions for the full realization of direct grain harvest are becoming more and more mature.
From the supply of corn grain direct harvester, the mature products applicable in China still have the most leading advantages, such as John Deere, Keith case and DEUTZ Fahr. They not only have good overall operation effect, but also have high efficiency, strong reliability and high intelligence. The lack is high price and poor maintenance service effect. In recent years, domestic agricultural machinery leading enterprises such as Zoomlion and Lovol have increased their research and development of grain harvesters and achieved remarkable results. The product maturity has been continuously improved and gradually won the recognition of many users. There is no doubt that grain harvesters are an extremely important development direction of corn harvesters. Domestic enterprises must accelerate the pace of product innovation and technological breakthrough, In order to effectively occupy the market.
In the future and even in the next few years, the corn harvester market still has deep potential to be tapped. There are five supporting factors: first, for a long time, corn has always been one of the most important food crops in China, and the demand for mechanization has always existed; Second, the national policy continued to help, and increased efforts were made on grain direct collection models and special demand models in Hilly and mountainous areas; Third, with the effective assistance of the animal husbandry industry, corn is the main feed source, and more than 40% of corn is used as feed, which provides a strong driving force for the upward price of corn. At the same time, animal husbandry promotes the upgrading of products such as stem ear and corn harvester, which is becoming a new sales growth point; Five, the stock renewal, 2014, and 2015, the 10 million corn harvesters that have entered the market, no matter the efficiency, reliability or advanced nature of the harvest, are relatively inadequate, and are being phased out by users. The stock market update has become the main force of market growth.
The prospect is good and seizing the commanding height of the corn harvester industry is "wind and rain is coming". Everything is ready and the east wind has arrived. The rest depends on the efforts of all agricultural machinery people. Let's move forward and create a fuller industrial competitive strength with wisdom and sweat.