Smart agriculture -- enabling agricultural modernization and high-quality development
Smart agriculture is regarded as another new agricultural technology revolution after the revolution of plant breeding and genetics, which will completely change the mode of modern agricultural production and management, and make agriculture enter the stage of digital, networked and intelligent development. Smart agriculture is a new scene of digital technology and scientific and technological innovation. The deep integration of scientific and technological innovation and agricultural industry will not only give birth to new driving forces for the development of agricultural industry, but also trigger technological innovations such as digital technology, data science, artificial intelligence and blockchain.
Smart agriculture is the advanced stage of agricultural informatization development and the inevitable direction of agricultural development in the future
Human society is experiencing the information revolution. Information technology represents the development direction of today's advanced productive forces and has strong driving, permeability and diffusion. Since the 21st century, mankind has comprehensively entered the information technology era centered on the Internet. With the rapid development of new generation information technology, agricultural informatization is developing from traditional digitization and networking to intelligent and intelligent high-end direction. Global agricultural development has entered a new stage of intelligent agricultural development. With information knowledge as the core, smart agriculture deeply applies modern information technologies such as remote sensing network, sensor network, big data, Internet, cloud computing and artificial intelligence, as well as intelligent equipment and intelligent robots, to the whole industrial chain of agricultural production, processing, operation, management and services, so as to realize precision planting, Internet sales, intelligent decision-making and socialized services, Form a modern agricultural development form with the basic characteristics of digitization, automation, precision and intelligence.
The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China pointed out that "we should give priority to the development of agriculture and rural areas, establish and improve the urban-rural integrated development system, mechanism and policy system, and accelerate the modernization of agriculture and rural areas in accordance with the general requirements of industrial prosperity, ecological livability, rural civilization, effective governance and affluent life."
Smart agriculture is an advanced stage of agricultural informatization development and a brand-new agricultural development concept. It is both related and different from agricultural informatization development modes such as computer agriculture, digital agriculture and precision agriculture. Computer agriculture, digital agriculture and precision agriculture apply key information technology to the process of agricultural production to improve agricultural production efficiency and benefits. Smart agriculture is to realize the intellectualization of all factors, the whole chain, the whole industry and the whole region. It not only runs through the agricultural production process, but also includes links such as agricultural operation, agricultural management and agricultural services, which is very different from other agricultural informatization development models. The connotation and extension of smart agriculture are broader, and the theories, technologies, systems and equipment involved are more comprehensive and complex.
At present, China is in a critical period of transformation from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Agricultural development is facing new challenges such as the ceiling of agricultural product prices and the floor of production costs. New problems such as constraints on agricultural resources and environment, imbalance of agricultural production structure and low quality and efficiency of agricultural development are becoming increasingly prominent. There is an urgent need to accelerate the transformation of agricultural development mode, change from extensive development to fine management and scientific decision-making development mode, and take the path of output efficiency Product safety, resource conservation and environment-friendly agricultural modernization. Agricultural informatization has become an inevitable choice to lead China's modern agricultural development, innovate agricultural management services and solve the problems of agricultural development.
The outline of the 13th Five-Year plan, the No. 1 central document every year since 2016, the new generation of artificial intelligence development plan published in recent years, the outline of the digital rural development strategy, the digital rural development plan for agriculture (2019 2025), and so on, have all made top-level design and systematic planning for the development of agricultural digitalization and intellectualization. Developing smart agriculture is an urgent need to implement China's national strategy of "synchronization of four modernizations", accelerate the transformation of agricultural development mode and promote agricultural modernization. It helps to promote the deep integration of informatization and agricultural modernization, promote the transformation and upgrading of the whole agricultural industrial chain, and optimize the allocation and scientific management of resources, Effectively improving the efficiency of agricultural production and management and improving the agricultural ecological environment are of great significance to building a digital China, implementing the Rural Revitalization Strategy and promoting the high-quality development of agriculture.
The key to smart agriculture is data, which needs to solve three major problems: data acquisition, processing and application
Data is a basic strategic resource, and digital economy is a new driving force for modern economic development. The Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee first proposed to take data as a factor of production to participate in income distribution, and data as a new factor of production runs through the input stage to the output and distribution stage. The goal of smart agriculture is to realize the intelligence of the whole process of agriculture, and its essence is data-driven. Around the key production factor of "data", the composition of smart agriculture includes key technologies, equipment and integrated systems in data acquisition, data processing and analysis, data application services, etc., so as to realize the transformation from data to knowledge to decision-making. Each link has its key theory and technical method system. These theories and technical methods are highly integrated to form a complete intelligent agriculture system.
Data acquisition is the basis of smart agriculture. Through accurate perception and data acquisition technology innovation, build an agricultural and rural information acquisition technology system integrating "sky and earth", carry out research on data acquisition, input, summary, application and management technology, improve the ability to obtain and process raw data, and solve the basic problem of "where and how to manage data". The focus is to promote the research and development of professional remote sensing satellites to meet the needs of agriculture and rural areas, break through the common key technologies of UAV agricultural applications, overcome the manufacturing of special sensors for agricultural production environment and animal and plant physiological signs, and realize cross regional, all factor and multi-level data collection of resources, environment, production, operation, management and services in important agricultural and pastoral areas; Research and develop agricultural and rural big data management platform, and break through key technologies such as "centralized + distributed" integrated cloud architecture of agricultural and rural resource assets and data security.
Data processing and analysis is the support. Carry out technical innovation in data mining and intelligent diagnosis, build an agricultural big data intelligent processing and analysis technology system, strengthen the advanced layout of cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, virtual reality, blockchain + agriculture and big data cognitive analysis, and solve the problem of "how to process and analyze data". The focus is to tackle key technical problems, integrate agronomic knowledge and models, computer vision, in-depth learning and other methods, develop proprietary models and algorithms for animal and plant production monitoring, identification, diagnosis, simulation and regulation, and realize digital and intelligent diagnosis of the whole factors and process of agricultural production; Focusing on rural digital services, strengthen the research and development of technologies such as association mining, intelligent retrieval, intelligent matching and in-depth learning of agricultural and rural data resources, so as to meet the all-round information needs of farmers for convenient services and e-commerce.
Data application service is the key. Through precise control and technological innovation, build a data enabled agricultural and rural intelligent decision-making and management technology system, accelerate the digital transformation of industry management and service process, and solve the problem of "how to serve data". The focus is to strengthen the research on the integration of agricultural and rural proprietary software and information system, and develop environmental intelligent control system, rapid quality detection and cold chain logistics technology of agricultural products, and reliable Traceability Technology of agricultural products; Strengthen the independent R & D capability of intelligent equipment, create a batch of agricultural intelligent perception, intelligent control, independent operation and other equipment, and focus on breaking through the technologies of agricultural robot, NC spraying, intelligent detection, intelligent handling, intelligent picking, grading and sorting of fruit and vegetable products; Develop digital agriculture standards and specifications, and establish data standards, data access and services, software and hardware interfaces and other standards and specifications.
Smart agriculture is a complex system application, which needs the intersection and integration of multi departments, multi fields and multi disciplines
In terms of application fields, intelligent agricultural technologies, platforms and equipment have been widely used in different fields such as planting, breeding, processing and circulation, forming new industrial development formats such as intelligent farmland, intelligent pasture, intelligent fishing ground, intelligent orchard, intelligent plant factory, intelligent workshop for agricultural product processing, green and intelligent supply chain of agricultural products. Different smart agriculture development modes and paths are formed for different application subjects. For example, the smart agriculture application of small farmers mainly focuses on information skill training, technology trusteeship and equipment sharing services, e-commerce platform and small intelligent terminal application; For new business entities such as large planting and breeding households, family farms, agricultural enterprises and cooperatives, it focuses on applications such as improving production efficiency, enhancing product added value and intelligent transformation of the whole industrial chain. At the same time, different intelligent agricultural application modes are formed around the industrial types and characteristics of different regions. For example, the northeast of China is dominated by large-scale field precision planting, the southeast coast is dominated by the development of intelligent fishery and intelligent logistics, and the southwest mountainous area is dominated by the development of intelligent characteristic agriculture.
Smart agriculture is a complex software and hardware system application. Through the comprehensive application of cutting-edge digital technology and equipment, it can automatically, accurately and efficiently collect, extract and process agricultural big data, connect all kinds of data "islands", and quickly obtain a variety of information and knowledge with the help of artificial intelligence methods such as image and video recognition, in-depth learning and data mining, so as to achieve high-quality and efficient agriculture Eco friendly high-quality development.
As a technology intensive agricultural innovation system, smart agriculture needs the integrated development of technology, platform and ecology. Specifically, it needs not only the support of new infrastructure such as 5g, artificial intelligence and data center, but also the basic research and theoretical breakthrough of information technology, data science, agricultural science and equipment science. The important driving force for the future development of smart agriculture comes from the high organic integration of agricultural information technology, agronomy and agricultural machinery, and depends on the cross integration of digital technology and agricultural science, resource and environmental science, genomics, agricultural economy and social science. Only by scientifically understanding the complex relationship and ecological relationship between animal and plant production, water and soil resources and environment, can massive agricultural data be transformed into knowledge and decision-making; Only when combined with the molecular information of individual animals and plants, such as genomics and microbiota, can powerful machine learning, deep learning and data mining technology play an important role and achieve the goal of data enabled agriculture. In addition, to promote smart agricultural scientific and technological innovation, we must pay attention to interdisciplinary and cross industry knowledge exchange and technology integration, and pay attention to the cultivation of compound agricultural talents.