Accelerate the development of agricultural mechanization to high quality ——The person in charge of the Agricultural Mechanization Management Department of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas answered reporters' questions on the national agricultu
On December 27, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs issued the "14th Five-year plan for the Development of Agricultural mechanization" (hereinafter referred to as the "plan"), which clarified the overall thinking, goals, tasks and policies for the development of agricultural mechanization in China during the 14th Five-year Plan. Recently, the reporter interviewed the department of agricultural mechanization management of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas concerned responsible comrade.
Reporter: "the 13th Five-Year Plan" our country agricultural mechanization development achievement how?
Answer: agricultural mechanization is the key to accelerate agricultural and rural modernization and basic support. Since the 13th Five-Year Plan, China's agricultural mechanization has made great progress, forming a good situation to the whole process of high-quality and efficient transformation and upgrading. The total power of agricultural machinery in China reached 1.056 billion kw, an increase of 17 percent over the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan Period. The overall mechanization rate of crop cultivation and harvest reached 71.25 percent, 7.4 percentage points higher than that at the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan Period. The overall mechanization rate of wheat, corn and rice reached 97 percent, 90 percent and 84 percent, respectively, 3.5, 8.6 and 6.2 percentage points higher than that at the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan Period. We established 614 demonstration counties for whole-process mechanization in the production of major crops, and made steady progress in the mechanization of animal husbandry and aquaculture, facility agriculture, primary processing of agricultural products, and fruits, vegetables, and tea. Intelligent agricultural machines, such as unmanned agricultural machines based on Beidou and 5G, and unmanned aircraft for plant protection, have entered the production line. We created 310 demonstration counties (county-level cities) for safe agricultural machinery, and carried out in-depth investigations and rectification of potential safety risks of agricultural machinery. As a result, the situation of agricultural machinery safety in production continued to improve steadily. The industrial chain of agricultural mechanization industrial clusters has been developing vigorously, with 19,000 new agricultural machinery cooperatives, 195,000 agricultural machinery service organizations, and growing mechanized forces. The amount of operations and service income continue to increase. By 2020, the total area of agricultural machinery operations will reach 7 billion mu, and the operating service income will reach 361.5 billion yuan. Agricultural mechanization has provided strong support for ensuring the supply of grain and other important agricultural products, increasing farmers' incomes and winning the battle against poverty.
Reporter: "the 14th Five-Year Plan" period, our country agricultural mechanization development faces what kind of situation and challenge?
A: At present, China's agricultural production has shifted from mainly relying on human and animal power to mainly relying on mechanical power, entering a new stage dominated by mechanization. The broad masses of farmers and agricultural production and operation organizations, service organizations for mechanized production demand more and more extensive, more and more urgent, agricultural production in various fields of agricultural mechanization demand structure profound changes. But agricultural mechanization in the region, industry, varieties, links of unbalanced development is not sufficient, there are many constraints to overcome. For example, the R&D and manufacturing of agricultural machinery products need to be strengthened, the coordination of agricultural machinery and agricultural techniques and farmland needs to be strengthened, and the policy support and management services of agricultural mechanization need to be improved. It is an arduous task to strengthen the weak spots, strong and weak areas and promote coordination.
During the 14th Five-Year Plan period, the work of agriculture, rural areas and farmers entered a new stage of comprehensively promoting rural revitalization and accelerating agricultural and rural modernization, which put forward new and more urgent requirements for the development of agricultural mechanization and also brought new development opportunities for agricultural mechanization. At the fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, priority was given to the development of agriculture and rural areas, and rural revitalization was promoted in an all-round way. The Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and The State Council on Comprehensively Promoting Rural Revitalization and Accelerating Agricultural and Rural modernization put forward the requirements of "improving the independent research and development capacity of agricultural machinery equipment, supporting the r&d and manufacturing of high-end intelligent agricultural machinery equipment in hilly and mountainous areas, and increasing purchase subsidies". The 14th Five-Year Plan of the People's Republic of China for National Economic and Social Development and the Outline of the 2035 Vision Target include "agricultural mechanization" in modern agricultural and rural construction projects, and define a series of measures to promote it. "The 14th Five-Year Plan" to promote agricultural and Rural modernization plan to promote the overall development of agricultural mechanization. "Difference", based on the fully implement the strategy of rejuvenating the country and the basic strategy of the modernization of agriculture and rural areas to deploy, accurately grasp the history directions of the new stage of agricultural mechanization, in-depth implementation of the requirements of the party central committee and the State Council, actively respond to challenges, we will accelerate agricultural mechanization comprehensive and high quality development.
Reporter: what is the train of thought and target of agricultural mechanization development in the 14th Five-year Plan?
Answer: On the basis of summarizing the achievements of China's agricultural mechanization development during the 13th Five-Year Plan period and analyzing the challenges and development needs during the 14th Five-year Plan period, the plan puts forward the guiding ideology, basic principles and development goals for the development of agricultural mechanization during the 14th Five-Year Plan period. In terms of the guiding ideology, it emphasizes the work orientation of ensuring supply and security and revitalizing smooth circulation. It will continue to do a good job in the key tasks of ensuring supply, linking up, banning fishing, construction, key points and reform, further promote the supply-side structural reform of agricultural mechanization, and focus on shoring up weak points, weak points and promoting coordination. Vigorously promote the integration and adaptation of mechanization with agronomic systems, intelligent information technology, agricultural operation methods and farmland construction, lead and promote the innovative development of agricultural machinery and equipment, expand and strengthen the industrial chain of agricultural mechanization industrial group, and accelerate the development of agricultural mechanization to the full process of high-quality and efficient development. We will provide strong support for ensuring the effective supply of grain and other important agricultural products, consolidating and expanding the achievements made in poverty alleviation, comprehensively promoting rural revitalization, and accelerating agricultural and rural modernization. In the basic principle, it is put forward to adhere to the central, serve the overall situation, give full play to mechanization production and loss reduction, cost saving and efficiency increasing and leading driving role; Adhere to policy support, market-oriented, continue to improve agricultural mechanization support policy system, stimulate the vitality of market players; We will continue to pursue innovation-driven and coordinated development, improve the level of research, development and manufacturing of agricultural machinery and promote efficiency and efficiency in its application, and accelerate efforts to shore up weak links in development. We will adhere to systematic planning and coordinated promotion, focus on whole-process mechanization of major crops and important breeding varieties, and establish a high-quality and efficient whole-process mechanization technology system. In terms of development goals, it is in line with the development goals proposed in the Guiding Opinions of The State Council on Accelerating Agricultural Mechanization and The Transformation and Upgrading of Agricultural Machinery and Equipment Industry. It is clear that by 2025, the total power of agricultural machinery in China will be around 1.1 billion kilowatts, the configuration structure of agricultural machinery and tools will be reasonable, and the operating conditions of agricultural machinery will be significantly improved. Covering the farm machinery socialization service system of agricultural prenatal during postnatal basic establishment, agricultural machinery and equipment for energy conservation and emissions reduction achieved significant effect, the farm machinery green agriculture support is obviously increased, mechanization and informationization further integration, intelligence, agricultural mechanization will markedly enhance its capability of disaster prevention and mitigation, and data security and farm machinery safety in production of agricultural machinery to further strengthen; The overall mechanization rate of crop cultivation and harvest reached 75 percent nationwide, and agricultural mechanization was basically realized in major grain, cotton, oilseed, and sugar producing counties (county-level cities and districts). The overall mechanization rate of crop cultivation and harvest reached 55 percent in hilly counties (county-level cities and districts), and over 50 percent in facility agriculture, animal husbandry, aquaculture and primary processing of agricultural products. The industrial chain of agricultural mechanization industry group is more stable, the total income of agricultural machinery service continues to grow, and agricultural mechanization has entered a period of comprehensive and high-quality development.
Reporter: What are the key tasks specified in the plan?
Answer: "plan" problem orientation, goal oriented, result oriented, with an eye to grasp key, short, strong or weak, promote the coordination and level, promoting agricultural machinery and agronomy, farmland, agriculture management way collaborative coordination, promote the development of each industry, each district mechanization, high quality, put forward the "difference" eight aspects of agricultural mechanization development the main task. First, we will raise the level of whole-process mechanization of grain production, make up the weak links in whole-process mechanization of grain production, reduce losses and improve quality in key links of mechanized grain production, and build an efficient whole-process mechanized grain production system. Second, vigorously develop the mechanization of cash crop production, improve the mechanization level of the entire production of bulk cash crops, break through the mechanization of key links in the production of special cash crops, and accelerate the mechanization of facility planting. Third, speed up the development of mechanization of livestock, poultry and aquaculture, promote the large-scale mechanization of major livestock and poultry breeding, build a green aquaculture mechanization system, and promote green and efficient breeding equipment technology. Fourth, actively promote the mechanization of agricultural preliminary processing, promote the development and application of green and efficient agricultural preliminary processing machinery and equipment, and strengthen the construction of agricultural preliminary processing mechanization system. Fifth, we will speed up efforts to strengthen the weak links in agricultural mechanization in hilly and mountainous areas, promote research and development and popularization of suitable equipment, promote mechanization of farmland, and promote innovation in operational service models. Sixth, accelerate the promotion of intelligent and green agricultural mechanization, promote technological innovation of intelligent agricultural machinery equipment, demonstrate the application of intelligent technology, promote digital management of mechanized production, and promote energy conservation and emission reduction of agricultural machinery. Seventh, expand and strengthen the industrial chain of agricultural mechanization industry group, strengthen the socialized service of agricultural machinery operation, promote the development of agricultural machinery sales, maintenance and spare parts supply industry, and promote the development of agricultural machinery skills training and vocational education. Eighth, strengthen agricultural machinery safety management, strictly implement safety supervision responsibilities, constantly improve safety supervision capacity, and promote the reform of driving training system.
Reporter: What are the key tasks and projects in the Plan?
A: The Plan focuses on key and difficult issues that need to be solved in the development of agricultural mechanization, proposes targeted measures and deploys 25 key tasks, major projects and action plans. Mainly include soil in crop production mechanization managed to create the whole process, the northeast conservation tillage action plan, deep loosening soil preparation and characteristic of agricultural machinery economic crops varieties typical cases selected the entire production mechanization, agricultural facilities fully mechanized managed to create, scale farming mechanization managed to create the whole process, mechanical power aquatic breeding livestock and poultry breeding and engineering epidemic prevention tools selection Commend, green and efficient agricultural mechanization of pretreating typical cases selected release, hilly efficient development and application of agricultural machinery, hilly farmland should be reformed, smart league level of agricultural machinery, agricultural machinery operation beidou monitoring application promotion, precise operation of agricultural machinery technology and equipment informationization construction, the agricultural mechanization management services, new model formats to foster agricultural machinery operation services, specialized agriculture Tractor driver training mechanization of operations, disaster prevention and mitigation capacity upgrade, "agricultural machinery" peace demonstration create variant tractors, tractor "bright project", "reset", the old farm machinery to scrapped, agricultural machinery, agricultural mechanization technology innovation ability condition construction test appraisal ability promotion, agricultural mechanization standard system construction and administration of quality supervision, agricultural mechanization management and technical personnel training, etc . Among them, the important tasks listed in the 14th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China and the Outline of 2035 Vision Goals, such as the establishment of whole-process mechanization demonstration counties, the action plan for conservation tillage of black land in northeast China, the deep soil preparation of agricultural machinery, and the suitable mechanization of farmland in hilly and mountainous areas, were carried out in detail.
Reporter: What policy measures will be taken to achieve the goals and tasks set forth in the Plan?
A: The Plan puts forward supporting policies and measures to promote the development of agricultural mechanization from the aspects of formulating and implementing action plans to strengthen the shortcomings of agricultural machinery and equipment, strengthening the investment in policy support, strengthening the support of talent teams and enhancing the legal guarantee capacity. For example, in terms of agricultural machinery equipment, we proposed to formulate action plans, carry out the construction of large-scale and high-horsepower high-end intelligent agricultural machinery equipment and the pilot area for the promotion and application of small applicable machinery in hilly areas, plan key projects of agricultural machinery equipment R&D and innovation, and improve the agricultural machinery test and identification outline and agricultural mechanization standard system. For example, in terms of policy support, it is proposed to steadily implement subsidy policies for the purchase and application of agricultural machinery, increase subsidies for the scrapping and renewal of agricultural machinery, support agricultural machinery service subjects to carry out deep sowing and deep tillage, machine seeding and production trusted-service, and implement subsidy policies for no-tillage and sowing in northeast Black land Conservation Tillage Action Plan. We will promote the implementation of policies on land used for facility agriculture, land used for construction of new agricultural businesses, electricity consumption for agricultural production, and tax and fee reductions, and encourage local government bonds and funds to support the mechanization of farmland in hilly and mountainous areas. Such as personnel support, to all-round training, discovery, the introduction of innovative, practical, and LingJunXing farm machinery scientific research talents, technology popularization and test evaluation of professional and technical personnel training and continuing education, strengthen agricultural machinery safety supervision law enforcement personnel education training, support rural farm machinery staff are encouraged to attend farmers cultivate high quality planning and education promotion action, Carry out vocational education such as skill training for agricultural machinery service personnel, and select and train "soil experts" on the front line of agricultural machinery use.
Reporter: What are your plans to promote the implementation of the Plan?
A: To ensure the implementation of the plan, we need to focus on the following aspects. First, we need to strengthen organizational leadership. To promote the implementation of the plan into an important agenda, do a good job of provincial agricultural mechanization development plans and this plan. Give full play to the role of national and provincial agricultural mechanization development coordination and promotion mechanism, strengthen overall planning and coordination, and jointly promote the development of agricultural mechanization in the 14th Five-Year Plan. We will actively seek the attention and support of party committees and governments at all levels, and promote the inclusion of agricultural mechanization development in the assessment of party and government accountability for food security and rural revitalization. Second, we strengthened supervision and guidance. To guide all regions, industries, varieties and links to clarify the goals and tasks, existing weaknesses and corresponding policies and measures for the development of agricultural mechanization during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, and to regularly evaluate the implementation of work progress. We will study and formulate evaluation indicators and monitoring methods for the basic realization of agricultural mechanization, carry out monitoring of the overall and high-quality development of agricultural mechanization, and strengthen evaluation of the implementation of the plan. Third, mobilize social participation. Fully mobilize the enthusiasm and initiative of all sectors of society to support and care for the development of agricultural mechanization, build a platform for extensive social participation, and build a work pattern of coordinated promotion by the government, society and market. We will summarize and popularize good experiences and practices in promoting the transformation and upgrading of agricultural mechanization in various regions, and give full play to their exemplary role. Increase the intensity, breadth and depth of the propaganda of agricultural mechanization, tell good stories of agricultural mechanization, and create a good atmosphere of widespread attention and support from the whole society.